The Communal State: Communal Councils, Communes, and Workplace Democracy.

NACLA, Vol. 2, No. 46, summer 2013. On pages 25-30

The particular character of what Hugo Chávez called the Bolivarian process
lies in the understanding that social transformation can be constructed from
two directions, “from above” and “from below.” Bolivarianism—or
Chavismo—includes among its participants both traditional organizations and
new autonomous groups; it encompasses both state-centric and anti-systemic

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